Monday, April 25, 2016

UPDATED: Depth of Infield Conditioners

Infield conditioners are a critical tool for effective infield maintenance. How deep should the conditioner be on a given field? The answer depends on the level of play as well as the base soil.

Photo 1 shows an infield that has a mix with a high silt to clay ratio (SCR - 2.5). The field also hosts high school and recreational play. In this example, a greater amount of conditioner should be used. Approximately 1/4 inch of conditioner is the recommended depth for the surface.

Photo 2 shows an infield with an engineered soil with a balanced silt to clay ratio (SCR -1.0) The field hosts professional play. In this example, a lesser amount of conditioner should be used. Approximately 1/8 inch of conditioner is the recommended depth for the surface.

Bottom line, in the instances below a greater depth of conditioner should be considered:

• Infield mixes with a high SCR
• Difficulty in keeping moisture in an infield (recreational play)
• Infield mixes with a great amount of fine and very fine sand
• Infield mixes that tend to become too firm in dry weather

The goal is to create a top 1/4 inch that is managed to allow for cleat-in and cleat-out play. 

Play on!

Download the Smart Turf Printable - Depth of Infield Conditioners

The original post can be viewed here.

Monday, April 18, 2016

UPDATED: Calcined Clay vs Expanded Shale

There are 2 major types of conditioner or topdressing for baseball and softball infields.

1.) Calcined Clay

2.) Expanded Shale/Vitrified Clay

What is Calcined Clay?
First, let’s look at calcined clay. Calcined clay is a montmorillonite clay fired at 1500 degrees in a rotary kiln. So, in the most basic terms, the clay is turned into a ceramic—think pottery in art class. Once the clay is a porous ceramic, it becomes very absorbent—think little sponges. That is why this material is great for drying a wet infield.

What is a Drying Agent?
Many drying agents also exist. (Rapid Dry, Quick Dry, Calcined Clay Drying Agent)  Simply, they are the finest particles of calcined clay. Why do they absorb moisture better than a coarser grade particle?  The smaller particles cover a greater surface area, thus a quicker “drying” material.

A couple common misconceptions with calcined clay:

“I can till calcined clay into my infield to raise clay content.” FALSE. 

Once fired, montmorillonite clay is no longer a clay. When calcined clay is tilled into an infield profile, the infield mix will become looser and can assist in holding more moisture in the column. Keep in mind, tilling in too much calcined clay is similar to adding too much sand—the column will become too loose for play.

“I have to add a drying agent to dry a puddle.” FALSE. 

Any calcined clay will absorb water. Keep in mind, the finer the particle the quicker the absorption of water. 

RECOMMENDATION: Stock only Pro’s Choice Select calcined clay. This product will work day in and day out as a topdressing. If additional material is needed to dry a wet infield, the additional product will not only absorb water but also remain as a long-term topdressing.
Avoid using drying agents/ rapid dry. While the finest particle size will dry a wet area quicker, they will negatively effect your infield mix profile over time.

What is a Vitrified Clay/ Expanded Shale?

Simply stated, a vitrified clay/expanded shale (Dura Edge ProSlide) is fired at over 2000 degrees. The product produced is lightweight and extremely durable. This product will not absorb as much moisture as calcined clay. During rain events this material will shed water to the base material to rehydrate the column while also ensuring the water runs off the infield.

Why is Vitrified Clay/Expanded Shale a Good Choice for Engineered Soils?

Engineered soils are materials that are blended via computer to ensure that the infield mix is consistent time after time. Due to this fact, engineered soils are the best product for the  value for infield mixes. Engineered soils can take large rain events and stay firm under foot. Furthermore, engineered soils will not become dusty when dry.

Due to the above facts, vitrified clay/expanded shale is a great choice for a couple reasons:
1.     The expanded shale allows for moisture to be shed to the engineered soil to more quickly drain the rain event while also allowing moisture to re-hydrate the base material. This is a great benefit for recreational surfaces that only see moisture during rain events.
2.     The weight of expanded shale (heavier than calcined clay) will allow the material to stay in place and lessen the chances of the topdressing “blowing around” the infield.
3.     Expanded shale is produced and available in bulk at a reduced cost. Oftentimes the cost of bulk material is 1/2 the cost of bagged products.

RECOMMENDATION: Expanded shale is an extremely durable product that should be considered as the base topdressing/sliding surface on an infield.  A general rule of thumb is a 50/50 blend of Pro’s Choice Select Calcined Clay/Pro Slide as the base topdressing.  This will require 2 pallets (80 bags) of each product.

Download the printable Smart Turf sheet - Calcined Clay vs. Expanded Shale

This post original post can be viewed here. 

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Tricks of the Trade - Grounds Crew Shoe Rack

Many times grounds areas are are full of different types of shoes.  Rain shoes, tarp shoes, running shoes, game shoes etc.  How do you keep them neat, clean and orderly?  Consider building a shoe rack.  Here is a photo of the grounds crew shoe rack at Victory Field.  Simply using 3/4 inch plywood and sealing it with black paint did the trick for this application.  Then, each area is labeled for each grounds crew member.

Go to to learn more about J&D Turf.

Play on!

Thursday, April 7, 2016

How Do I Create a Divot Mix for Sports Fields?

I get this question a number of times during my travels?  How do handle the bare areas on my field?

This is a major problem on cool season athletic fields.  All it takes is a simple blend of 2-3 products.

First, place topsoil and if you have it available, peat on the grounds shop floor.

Next, add seed at a rate equal to the soil/peat blend.  Yes, I know this is a lot of seed, but being aggressive with seeding rates are critical in high traffic areas.

Blend all the materials together with a shovel and place in a bucket.

Finally, place in the bare area.  Using some type of aerification before seeding is the best approach.  In this case, a pitch fork provided the aerification.

Creating a seed bank in cool season athletic fields are critical to achieving 100% cover.  Don't be afraid to seed frequently.

Go to to learn more about J&D Turf.

Play on!